The test requires two pieces of stock, the test specimen and a test receptor. Cut a test specimen, approximately six by three inches. When printed area permits, the six-inch directions should be cut across the grain of the sheet, but must not cross pressed or cut scores.
Prepare test receptor strips of material from the same shipment of stock used in the test sample. Cleanly cut 2x7-inch strips for the four-pound weight (custom weights available here) are prepared by placing the strip face up against the pin of the scoring device and scoring at the white dot positions to facilitate bending the strip to conform to the test block.
To prepare samples for the two-pound weight, 2 X 5 ¼ inch strips are placed face up against the end pin of the scoring device and scored at the red dot position to facilitate bending the strip to conform to the test weight (click here for a picture tutorial or click here for a video tutorial).
Clip a 2x7-inch inch test strip to the four-pound test block, with the abrasive surface away from the rubber pad (facing the test specimen on base pad). Mount the test specimen securely (if printed material, mount with printed side up) on the rubber pad of the base plate securing with the hold down bracket.
Using a camel-hair brush (not included), brush the test strip and the test specimen thoroughly before starting the test to remove any dust or foriegn material.
Place the weights over the sample, making sure that the 2x4-inch rubber pad of the test block is over the area that is being tested, and that both surfaces are free of dirt. Preset the tester for ten strokes, or for any number of strokes selected as standard for a particular stroke.
Plug in the power cord to the correct voltage, the display will read a version number such as 1-0. If the machine is already plugged in, touching any key will reactivate the display to whatever the previous setting was.
For all speed 1, low count rub tests, cycle the machine one time to allow the machine to reset the exact stroke. Note: If you leave the machine sit idle, after approximately 60 minutes it will automatically turn the display off.
Each time the COUNT button is pressed the displayed cycle counts will increase by one. When the COUNT button is held down, the counts will increase each ½ second.
When the count reaches 10, it will start incrementing by 10's. When the count reaches 100 it will start incrementing by 100's. Anytime the button is released; the process will start over. (i.e. ones, tens, hundreds).
While the motor is running the COUNT button is deactivated and “count” adjustments cannot be made. Maximum count is 999. Press “Reset” to remove the count number readout. If the motor is running, pressing the reset will also stop the motor and remove the count number to 000.
Note: When adjusting the cycle count, the displayed value is the starting point, not the cycle count previously set. If the cycle count is 100 and the motor is started and then stopped at 95, pressing the Count button will set the cycle count to 96.
START & STOP BUTTON
This controls the starting and stopping of the motor. After the count has reached 0’s, the motor will stop and after a short delay the display will reset back to the number that was displayed at the time of the last start cycle.
If the motor is running when the START/STOP button is pressed, the motor will stop. The display is not cleared. Pressing START/STOP will start the motor again and the count will continue from the point at which the motor was stopped.
Note: The motor will not start if the display reads 0’s.
MOTOR SPEED BUTTON
Pressing the SPEED button will increment the motor through speed 1-4. The speed is indicated above the buttons by one of the four LED lights. The speeds available for testing are:
- Speed 1 (21 cycles per minute)
- Speed 2 (42 cycles per minute)
- Speed 3 (85 cycles per minute)
- Speed 4 (106 cycles per minute)
When the machine is first plugged in it will automatically default to low speed (i.e. Speed 1) unless you press the SPEED button.
The motor’s speed may be changed at any time, before starting the motor or after it is running. The speed of the motor is retained when the “Reset” button is pressed, to change speed press the SPEED button.
This button will reset the count of the board. When pressed, the display will reset to 0’s. If the motor is running, the motor will shut off. This button may be pressed at any time.
When the rub has been completed, examine both the test strips for signs of transfer. The two pieces should be stapled together and used for visual reference and interpretation. They should be marked plainly with the number of rubs given. Place the test block on its side after using; do not place it on the machine or lay it on the rubber base pad.
Mount the strips in the same manner as for a dry rub, using the two-pound test block. Preset the tester for one rub.
Place three to six drops of water on the printed surface so that the test block will cover them. Place the block in position and immediately press the “start” button.
After one stroke, examine both surfaces for color transfer. Repeat single strokes until ink failure is noted or the surface of the sample shows fuzz or abrasion.
WET BLEED OR TRANSFER
Mount a 2 X 5 ¼ inch strip on the two-pound test block with the felt or smooth side out, and saturate the blotter with water (an eyedropper is convenient).
Place the wet blotter on the sample to be tested and leave in place for four minutes.
Remove the block without rubbing and examine for ink transfer to the blotter.
Use a water-saturated blotter on the two-pound block and actuate the tester for one stroke. Examine the blotter for color transfer. In cases where extreme water resistance is required, more rubs may be specified.
An alternate procedure consists of mounting a 2 X 6-inch piece of 80X80 count bleached muslin on the two-pound test block over a blotter as specified above.
This procedure has been found particularly useful since it eliminates the effects of surface abrasion on the blotting paper.
Functional Rub is a term of embracing a number of miscellaneous uses for the SUTHERLAND® Rub Tester. Ink, which is acceptable under the outlined test procedures, may fail under exposure to foreign liquids or pastes. For example, certain inks might be tested to conform to specifications such as “one rub, Cod liver oil” or “three rubs, Jones Antacid Toothpaste.” In reporting functional rubs, the operator must specify the number of rubs, the time of contact before rubbing, and the special conditions and testing mediums employed.
EVALUATION OF TESTS
A practical approach should be emphasized in test evaluation. Few, if any, inks will pass rubbing, wet or dry, without a slight transfer of color. Decisions on the suitability of ink are best made by running comparative tests, checking an acceptable sample at the same time and under the same conditions.
A quantitative method of evaluating samples for rub damage has been developed. The test strip (receptor) is measured (zeroed) with a densitometer or a spectrophotometer before the rub test. After the test, the strip is measured again with either the change in density densitometer) or delta E (CIE L*a*b spectrophotometer) reported. The larger the number, the greater the rub damage.
Consideration must be given to the time interval between printing and testing, particularly with slow-drying inks. Also prints should be protected from dust and dirt between printing and testing.
An attempt should be made to use test samples which are representative of the run, i.e., eliminating the use of sheets with excessive anti-offset materials, or sheets taken from the top of a load which may have collected dust or foreign material.
NEW RUBBER PADS
Click here for information on replacement pads.
OPTIONAL HEATED WEIGHT
Click here for information on the heated weight.